Employment, skills and education

Income inequality is lower than in the US and has fallen since the financial crisis, but remains high, and has risen in the euro area. Europe is also creating relatively few mid-level jobs. The proportion of young people not in employment, education or training has fallen, but remains extremely high in many Member States.

Income inequality and social exclusion have been linked to populism. In an economy where the pace of innovation — and disruption to jobs — is high, it is essential to ensure the workforce’s continuous employability by better enabling lifelong learning. Embedded (“dual”) learning should become part of school curricula. A dialogue between government, schools and industry should also make sure students acquire the right skills and attitudes for the future.
There is no room for complacency on income inequality
Economic inactivity among the young remains high
Lifelong learning is now essential
ICT skills need to increase